Insights into the Diverse Precursor based Micro-Spherical Hard Carbons as Anode material for Sodium-ion and Potassium-ion Batteries

Material Advances (Royal Society of Chemistry); Accepted Date: December 02, 2021

Review Article



The growing renewable energy sector worldwide and the depleting resources for the Li-ion battery (LIB) technology in a decade push the case of complementary storage technologies, especially for stationary energy storage. Sodium-ion batteries (SIB) are on the verge of large-scale commercialization, and potassium-ion battery (PIB) technology is a relative newcomer in the field of future storage technologies. Suitable, low-cost, environmentally benign commercial electrode materials are the most researched battery systems in this context. Like LIBs, carbonaceous materials can potentially be the first commercial anode material for sodium-ion and potassium-ion batteries. Micro-Spherical hard carbons (MSHCs) have the added advantage of higher packing density and low surface area to volume ratio with good structural stability. The metal-ion storage capacity is critically dependent on morphology, surface area, surface defects, degree of graphitization, and porosity. The review addresses the influence of diverse precursors and synthesis conditions on micro-spherical hard carbons' electrochemical storage, focusing on storage-capacity and storage-mechanism correlation and the precursors' structural influence in designing anodes for sustainable, green, and safe SIBs and PIBs.