Opportunities in Na/K [Hexacyanoferrate] Frameworks for Sustainable Non-aqueous Na+/K+ batteries

 Sustainable Energy & Fuels (Royal Society of Chemistry), (IF 6.367)Accepted Date: December 03, 2021

Review Article

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1039/D1SE01653A

Author(s): Ashwani Tyagi, Nagmani, Sreeraj Puravankara.


In the past decade, the most sought cathode materials for SIBs and PIBs include transition metal oxides (TMOs), polyanionic phosphates and fluoro phosphates, NASICON-type polyanionic compounds, and alkali metal hexacyanoferrates (AMHCFs/PBAs). From the commercialization perspective, Novasis Energies, Inc. and Faradion Ltd. have successfully used AMHCFs and TMOs as cathode materials, respectively, for large-scale energy storage in sodium-ion batteries (SIBs). The open framework voids (~ 3.4 Å) in AMHCFs are ideal for the larger K+/Na+ ion insertion in PIBs and SIBs. Lower cost/performance ratio due to cheaper raw materials and sustainability due to Coloumbically efficient cycling stability make AMHCFs ideal cathode materials for sustainable future batteries. In the window of the commercial prospects, we review the AMHCFs as cathode materials for both SIBs and PIBs with the focus on optimizing AMHCF cathodes through morphology control, reducing the [Fe(CN)6] vacancies, minimizing the interstitial water, while maintaining a high crystallinity and Na+/K+ content in the AMHCFs to enhance the electrochemical performance. Surface engineering, gradient compounds, graphene-based composites, and multiple cation substitutions can create efficient Na+/K+ ion diffusion pathways. The storage mechanisms and optimizing the electrolyte systems in AMHCFs are critical for efficient Na+/K+ ion batteries for stationary storage.