Enhanced Performance of Ultra-Microporous Hard Carbon Spheres as Anode in Half /Full Cells for Sodium-ion Batteries through Optimized Carbonate Ester Electrolytes


EN05: Emerging Materials for Electrochemical Energy Storage Devices—Degradation andFailure Characterization—From Composition, Structure and Interfaces to Deployed Systems

Title: Enhanced Performance of Ultra-Microporous Hard Carbon Spheres as Anode in Half /Full Cells for Sodium-ion Batteries through Optimized Carbonate Ester Electrolytes.

Presented @ 2022, MRS Spring Meeting


Sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) draw great attention for promising next-generation stationary energy storage systems. In the last two decades, many novel materials have been proposed as the anode for the application in SIBs.1 Carbon-based anode materials have played a significant role for all alkali-ion-based batteries, due to low-cost fabrication, the abundance of precursors, and exclusively tunable mechanical and electronic properties.2 However, the low working potential of carbon anode leads to unstable solid electrolyte interface (SEI) film and dendrite formation during cycling.3 Also, huge irreversible loss especially during an initial cycle and lower initial faradaic efficiency (IFE) becomes critical to optimize the electrode/electrolyte interface to boost the overall battery performance. SIBs commercialization demands better “3-RC features such as reversible capacity, rate capability, and retention of capacity”. It stimulates to explore electrolytes system to enhance 3-RC features in both half-cell and full-cells configuration using hard carbon based anode.

Herein, we report ultramicroporous hard carbon microspheres (HCMS) derived from sucrose via microwave-assisted solvothermal reaction as anode for SIBs. The HCMS with larger interlayer spacing in graphitic domains and ultra-micropores assists it in delivering excellent 3-RC features yet reported for hard carbons derived from sugar-based carbon precursors through electrolyte optimization of carbonate esters (EC: PC, EC: DEC, EC: DMC).2,4 The HCMS with 1M NaClO4 salt in EC: PC electrolyte delivered the best reversible capacity of 385 mAhg-1 and 265 mAhg-1 at a current density of 30 mAg-1 and 300 mAg-1, respectively. It exhibits the capacity retention of 85.8 % after 100 cycles and 66.3 % after 500 cycles in a half-cell. A full-cell fabricated with HCMS-PC anode and NVP cathode delivered a reversible capacity of 81 mAhg-1 and 48 mAhg-1 at a current density of 30 mAg-1 and 300 mA g-1, respectively. The high reversible storage capacity with low IIRL, better cyclic stability, with excellent rate performance from 30 mAg-1 to 3000 mAg- 1 make HCMS the best sugar-based HC as anode materials for SIBs.


(1)      Zhang, H.; Hasa, I.; Passerini, S. Beyond Insertion for Na-Ion Batteries: Nanostructured Alloying and Conversion Anode Materials. Adv. Energy Mater. 20188 (17). https://doi.org/10.1002/aenm.201702582.

(2)    Nagmani.; Puravankara, S. Insights into the Plateau Capacity Dependence on the Rate Performance and Cycling Stability of a Superior Hard Carbon Microsphere Anode for Sodium-Ion Batteries. ACS Appl. Energy Mater. 20203 (10), 10045–10052. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsaem.0c01750.

(3)      Xu, K. Electrolytes and Interphases in Li-Ion Batteries and Beyond. Chem. Rev. 2014114 (23), 11503–11618. https://doi.org/10.1021/cr500003w.

(4)      Subramanyan, K.; Lee, Y. S.; Aravindan, V. Impact of Carbonate-Based Electrolytes on the Electrochemical Activity of Carbon-Coated Na3V2(PO4)2F3 Cathode in Full-Cell Assembly with Hard Carbon Anode. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science2021, pp 51–59. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2020.08.043.