Low-cost and sustainable micro/mesoporous hard carbon derived from Jute-waste for promising high-performance Sodium and Potassium-ion batteries with distinct storage mechanism

 Langmuir(IF = 4.331); Publication Date: 09 December 2022    

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.langmuir.2c02575

Author(s): NagmaniPrakhar Verma, and Sreeraj Puravankara


Hard carbon (HC) remains the most viable choice as a negative electrode for sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) and potassium-ion batteries (PIBs) owing to its higher energy density (discharge up to zero volts), higher capacity (distinct storage mechanisms), and cycling stability. Herein, a biomass jute fiber precursor HC anode (JPC) with varying porosity is reported for the first time as a low-cost and sustainable high-performance HC anode for SIBs and PIBs. Direct carbonization results in micro-meso porous HC (JPC-D), and micro-wave pretreated jute fiber results in ultramicroporous HC (JPC-M). The mesoporosity generated in JPC-D during synthesis outperforms the ultramicroporous JPC-M with a high reversible capacity of 328 mAh g–1 (iCE = 66%) at a current density of 30 mA g–1 (0.1C) with superior capacity retention of 84% after 100 cycles in SIBs. The Na+ ion and K+ ion storage in HCs, especially at lower voltages, shows distinct storage mechanisms that depend on the morphology and porosity of the material. JPC-D contributed 39% of its total capacity through the plateau region capacity (PRC), suggesting more pore filling from hierarchical porosity in SIBs. JPC-D and JPC-M exhibit more insertion-based capacity than pore-filling processes in PIBs. The presence of inorganic impurities (Ca, Si, Al, and Fe) encapsulated in the carbon structure plays a critical role in developing mesopores. The yield (%) of HC from direct carbonization per kilogram of jute is ∼34%, which makes it cheaper than HC from sugar-based precursors and 1.5 times more affordable than other biomass-derived HC. The jute-based micro-mesoporous HC is a novel, cost-effective, sustainable approach to designing HC for a PRC-based battery-type anode in SIBs and PIBs.

Read Online @ https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.langmuir.2c02575

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